WoodWorking

Glossary of Woodworking Terms

—A—

Air dried lumber

Lumber that is usually dried outdoors, to an equilibrium moisture content with the air it was exposed to.

Alternating Top Bevel with raker (ATB/R)

A design for circular saw blade where four alternately beveled teeth are followed by a raker tooth to remove debris from the cut.

Annual growth rings

The layer of growth that a tree put on in one year. The annual growth rings can be seen in the end grain of the wood.

Arbor

A shaft, driven by the tool’s motor that turns blades or other cutting tools.

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—B—

Back saw

A short rectangular saw with fine teeth and a ridged “spine” along the top of the blade. A backsaw is used for fine joinery work such as cutting dovetail joints.

Bark

The outermost, protective layer, of a tree composed of dead cork and other elements.

Bead

A small round, raised profile, routed along the outer edge of a board.

Bench Dog

A metal or wooden peg that fits into a hole in the bench top and is used to hold down a work piece in place.  The peg can be round or square and sometimes fitted with springs to hold it in place.

Bevel Cut

An Angled cut through a board.

Birds-eye figure

A figure in wood, usually maple and a few other species. The figure is composed of many small BB size rounded areas resembling a bird’s eye.  The figure is most common on plain and rotary sawn lumber.

Biscuit Joint

A butt joint that is reinforced with a football shaped “biscuit”.  The biscuits are usually made from compressed pieces of wood, usually birch.  When a biscuit comes into contact with glue in the joint it swells creating a tighter joint.  Also called a plate joint.

Board foot

A form of wood measurement, where the board is 1″ thick, 12″ wide and 12″ long.

Bookmatch

A term in veneering, where successive pieces of veneer from a flitch are arranged side by side.  A properly done bookmatch will resemble a mirror image of the opposite side.

Bore

The hole for the arbor in a circular saw blade.

Bow

A defective piece of lumber that has warped along its length.

Box Joint

A corner joint made up of interlocking “fingers”.

Brad

A small finishing nail up to 1″ long

Burl

Bulges and irregular growths that form on trunks and roots of trees.  Burls are highly sought after for the incredible veneer they yield.

Burr

A raised ridge of metal used on a scraper to remove wood.

Butt Joint

A woodworking joint where the edges of two boards are placed against each other.

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—C—

Cabriole leg

A leg used on Queen Anne furniture. the cabriole leg is charicterized by graceful curves and a shape that resembles an animal leg.

Cambium

The live, actively growing, layer of a tree. the cambium is one cell thick and resides between the sapwood and the phelom. It repeatedly divides itself to form new wood and causes the tree to grow and expand.

Chamfer

A beveled cut along the edge of a piece of furniture. (usually 45 degrees)

Carcase

The body of a piece of furniture with a box shape. ( a kitchen cabinet)

Case hardening

A defect in the lumber caused by improper drying. Case hardening is caused when a board is dried too fast. The outer layers in a case hardened board are compressed while the inner layers are in tension.

Cell

The smallest, microscopic, structure in wood.

Check

A lumber defect caused by uneven shrinking of the wood during drying. A checked board has splits which develope lengthwise across the growth rings.

Clear

A board with no defects.

Closed coat

A piece of sandpaper with a surface completely covered with abrasive particles. This type of paper tends to clog easily with sawdust and is generally not used for woodworking.

Collet

In a router, the sleeve that grips the shank of a bit.

Common grade lumber

Lumber with obvious defects.

Compound cut

An angled cut to both the edge and face of a board.

Concave

An inward-curving shape.

Convex

An outward -curving shape of a board.

Cope-and -stick joint

A method of construction raised panel doors where the tongues of the rails (horizontal) connect to the grooves of the stiles (vertical).

Cord

A unit measure often used for firewood stacked 4′ long x 4′ high x 8′ long.

Counter sink

A tool that allows you to drill a hole so that the head of a screw will sit flush with the face of a board.

Crook

A lumber defect where there is an edgewise warp effecting the straightness of the board.

Crosscut

A cut made perpendicular to the grain of a board.

Crotch

In lumber, a piece of wood taken from the fork of a tree. Crotch veneer is highly valued for its figuring.

Cup

A defect in the lumber where the face of the board warps up like the letter U.

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—D—

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—E—

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—F—

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—G—

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—H—

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—I—

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—J—

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—K—

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—L—

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—M—

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—N—

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—O—

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—P—

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—Q—

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—R—

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—S—

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—T—

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—U—

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—V—

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—W—

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—X—

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—Y—

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—Z—

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Woodworking Tutorial – Chapter 11

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